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  • Poking A Dead Frog: Conversations with Today’s Top Comedian Writers by Mike Sacks 
  • Writing Movies for Fun and Profit: How We Made a Billion Dollars at the Box Office and You Can, Too! By Thomas Lennon
  • Comedy Writing Step by Step by Gene Perret, Carol Burnett 
  • Comedy Writing Secrets by Melvin Helitzer 
  • Funny Business: The Craft of Comedy Writing by Sol Saks 
  • The Comic Toolbox – How to Be Funny Even If You’re Not by John Vorhaus 
  • Comedy Writing for Late-Night TV by Joe Toplyn 


  • Saturday Night Live
  • A Black Lady Sketch Show
  • I Think You Should Leave with Tim Robinson
  • The Iliza Shlesinger Sketch Show
  • Baroness Von Sketch Show
  • Alternatino
  • Astronomy Club
  • At Home with Amy Sedaris
  • Goatface
  • Netflix Presents: The Characters
  • Key & Peele
  • Inside Amy Schumer
  • Portlandia
  • Kroll Show
  • Aunty Donna’s Big Ol’ House of Fun
  • The Carol Burnett Show
  • Chappelle’s Show
  • The Kids In The Hall
  • Mr. Show
  • MADtv
  • In Living Color
  • Monty Python’s Flying Circus 
  • Eric Andre Show
  • The State


  • WTF with Marc Maron
  • Comedy Bang Bang
  • Spontaneanation


Punching Up is making jokes at the expense of someone who is of higher power, class, or privilege. It is also called “speaking truth to power,” which is an expression for confronting authority figures, oppression, and injustices.


  • Give a man a gun and he will rob a bank. Give a man a bank and he will rob everyone.
  • Why do straight people even need dating apps? Don’t they meet each other at grocery stores?

Punching Sideways is making jokes at the expense of yourself and your own direct experiences and birthright.

Example from a Hispanic who is a burn survivor: I learned that when a Mexican catches on fire, it does not smell like fajitas.

Example from a non-cisgender person: When I was in Vancouver, we saw a road called the Trans Canada Expressway and I said, “What, was it assigned USA at birth?”

Punching Down is making jokes at the expense of people from historically marginalized and underrepresented communities based on age, disability, gender, marriage status, size, veteran status, pregnancy and maternity, race/ethnicity, religion, and sexual orientation. Punching down is insulting, offensive, and often bigoted. Punching down could mute underrepresented voices in comedy and reject inclusivity. Racist jokes, sexist jokes, gay jokes, rape jokes, ableist jokes, ageist jokes, are all examples of punching down. They are all at the expense of marginalized groups. Targeting marginalized groups continues to abuse the already abused. Always punch up. Never punch down.


  • Question: Is Google male or female? Answer: Female, because it doesn’t let you finish a sentence before making a suggestion.
  • My least favorite person in the world is Texas Governor Greg Abbott, also known as, “Hot Wheels.”

Write what you know — write and perform your stories and experiences. You should write sketches or stand-up about things that you are in the position to write. It is best to not write on behalf of someone else, especially if the person is from a marginalized group, as you do not have ownership of that experience. For example, if you are a cis person, don’t write on behalf of a trans person’s experience. If you are a white person, don’t write on behalf of a POC’s experience. Writing about an experience that is not yours is unintentionally punching down.